Death in images: a study about how data visualizations foster death awareness during the COVID-19 pandemic

Autores

Palavras-chave:

Design, visualização de dados, consciência da morte

Resumo

Data visualizations are being used to represent death for the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite facilitating understanding, they also foster death awareness through visual language. Considering their delicate content, it is important to understand how different design choices might foster death awareness to modulate reader response. This paper aims to analyze a popular data visualization depicting contagion to map how visual language impacts the reader’s mortality awareness. The method was guided by Close Reading, and the results showed that the use of size, shape, spatial positioning, and color fosters fear, while the schematic way of representation incites reflection.

Referências

BERTIN, J. Sémiologie graphique: Les diagrammes – Les réseaux – Les cartes. Editions d. [S. l.: s. n.], 1999.

BIZZOCCHI, J. Run, Lola, Run - Film as Narrative Database. fourth Media in Transition conference, , p. 1–14, 2005. Available at: http://public.csusm.edu/diekman/vsar309f09/bizzocchi.pdf.

BIZZOCCHI, J.; BEN LIN, M. A.; TANENBAUM, J. Games, narrative and the design of interface. International Journal of Arts and Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 460–479, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJART.2011.043445.

BÖRNER, K.; BUECKLE, A.; GINDA, M. Data visualization literacy: Definitions, conceptual frameworks, exercises, and assessments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 116, no. 6, p. 1857–1864, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1807180116.

BRAGA, J. V.; PONTES E SILVA, T. B.; SOUTO, V. T. Manipulações estatísticas e anomalias visuais: design de visualização de dados e reconhecimento de vieses estatísticos. InfoDesign - Revista Brasileira de Design da Informação, vol. 17, no. 2, p. 145–162, 2020. .

COMBA, J. L. D. Data Visualization for the Understanding of COVID-19. Computing in Science and Engineering, vol. 22, no. 6, p. 81–86, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1109/MCSE.2020.3019834.

COOLEY, B. Data visualization as Grief. 2020. Nightingale. Available at: https://medium.com/nightingale/data-visualization-as-grief-599dc6536e6f. Accessed on: 30 May 2021.

EISNER, E. W. The Promise and Perils of Alternative Forms of Data Representation. Educational Researcher, vol. 26, no. 6, p. 4–10, 1997.

FADEL, L. M. O método close reading aplicado à análise de mídias interativas. Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. [S.l.]. 2020. Notas de aula.

GOLDENBERG, J. L.; ARNDT, J. The Implications of Death for Health: A Terror Management Health Model for Behavioral Health Promotion. Psychological Review, vol. 115, no. 4, p. 1032–1053, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0013326.

GOMES, A. R. A INFLUÊNCIA DOS APELOS VISUAIS NA INTENÇÃO DE CONSUMO DE CEREAIS MATINAIS DESTINADOS AO PÚBLICO INFANTIL: UM ESTUDO DA LINGUAGEM GRÁFICA NAS EMBALAGENS. 2020. 2020.

GOMES, J. C.; PIMENTA, R. M.; SCHNEIDER, M. MINERAÇÃO DE DADOS NA PESQUISA EM CIÊNCIA DA INFORMAÇÃO: DESAFIOS E OPORTUNIDADES. 2019. GT-1 – Estudos históricos e epistemológicos da Ciência da Informação [...]. [S. l.: s. n.], 2019.

GRANT, A. M.; WADE-BENZONI, K. A. THE HOT AND COOL OF DEATH AWARENESS AT WORK: MORTALITY CUES, AGING, AND SELF-PROTECTIVE AND PROSOCIAL MOTIVATIONS. Academy of Management Review, vol. 34, no. 4, p. 600–622, 2009. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2009.44882929.

GRAY, J. The data epic: Visualization practices for narrating life and death at a distance. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 313–328. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

GREENBERG, J.; ARNDT, J. Terror Management Theory. Theories of Social Psychology. [S. l.: s. n.], 2012. vol. 1, p. 398–415.

HEPWORTH, K. Editorial Big Data Visualization : Promises & Pitfalls. Communication Design Quarterly, vol. 4, no. 4, p. 7–19, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1145/3071088.3071090.

HORN, R. E. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. [S. l.: s. n.], 1998.

KENNEDY, H.; ENGEBRETSEN, M. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

LECHNER, V. E. What a line can say: Investigating the semiotic potential of the connecting line in data visualizations. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 329–346. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

LYKINS, E. L. B.; SEGERSTROM, S. C.; AVERILL, A. J.; EVANS, D. R.; KEMENY, M. E. Goal Shifts Following Reminders of Mortality: Reconciling Posttraumatic Growth and Terror Management Theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 8, p. 1088–1099, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207303015.

METCALFE, J.; MISCHEL, W. A hot/cool-system analysis of delay of gratification: dynamics of willpower. vol. 106, no. 1, p. 3–19, 1999. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.106.1.3.

NÆRLAND, T. U. The political significance of data visualization: Four key perspectives. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 63–74. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

PANDEY, A. V.; RALL, K.; SATTERTHWAITE, M. L.; NOV, O.; BERTINI, E. How Deceptive are Deceptive Visualizations?: An Empirical Analysis of Common Distortion Techniques. 2015. CHI 2015 [...]. [S. l.]: Association for Computing Machinery, 2015. p. 1469–1478. https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702608.

PINNEY, L. Is literacy what we need in an unequal data society? Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 223–238. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

PYSZCZYNSKI, T.; LOCKETT, M.; GREENBERG, J.; SOLOMON, S. Terror Management Theory and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, , p. 1–17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167820959488.

RETTBERG, J. W. Ways of knowing with data visualizations. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 35–48. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

ROSENBLATT, A.; GREENBERG, J.; SOLOMON, S.; PYSZCZYNSKI, T.; LYON, D. Evidence For Terror Management Theory: I . The Effects of Mortality Salience on Reactions to Those Who Violate or Uphold Cultural Values. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 57, no. 4, p. 681–690, 1989. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.4.681.

SIMPSON, J. Visualizing data: A lived experience. Data Visualization in Society. [S. l.: s. n.], 2020. p. 157–168. https://doi.org/10.5117/9789463722902.

STEIN, J. H.; CROPANZANO, R. Death awareness and organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 32, p. 1189–1193, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.715.

TVERSKY, B.; MORRISON, J. B.; BETRANCOURT, M. Animation: can it facilitate? Human-Computer Studies, vol. 57, p. 247–262, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1006/ijhc.1017.

VIÉGAS, F. B.; WATTENBERG, M. Artistic data visualization: Beyond visual analytics. 4564 LNCS., 2007., Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) [...]. [S. l.: s. n.], 2007. vol. 4564 LNCS, p. 182–191. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-73257-0_21.

VON ENGELHARDT, Y. The language of graphics. [S. l.: s. n.], 2002. Available at: http://dare.uva.nl.

Downloads

Publicado

2021-12-31

Edição

Seção

Artigos